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Alpha X Hub

Integrins are cell adhesion receptors that are heterodimers composed of non-covalently associated α and β subunits. CD11c/Integrin alpha X is a 145-150 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein present on a variety of cells, including monocytes/macrophages, granulocytes, NK cells and dendritic cells. Integrin alpha X/beta 2 acts a receptor for fibrinogen and is important in monocyte adhesion and chemotaxis. And this anitbody is CL488(Ex/Em 488 nm/515 nm) conjugated.

Alpha X Hub

This gene encodes the integrin alpha X chain protein. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This protein combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form a leukocyte-specific integrin referred to as inactivated-C3b (iC3b) receptor 4 (CR4). The alpha X beta 2 complex seems to overlap the properties of the alpha M beta 2 integrin in the adherence of neutrophils and monocytes to stimulated endothelium cells, and in the phagocytosis of complement coated particles. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]

Integrin alpha-X/beta-2 is a receptor for fibrinogen. It recognizes the sequence G-P-R in fibrinogen. It mediates cell-cell interaction during inflammatory responses. It is especially important in monocyte adhesion and chemotaxis. (ITAX_HUMAN,P20702 )

Alpha-diversity represents diversity within an ecosystem or a sample, in other words, what is there and how much is there in term of species. However, it is not easy to define a species and we can calculate alpha-diversity at different taxonomic levels.In this tutorial, we are looking at the OTU level (clustered at 97% similarity thresholds).

Do you think that there is any significant differences between the alpha-diversity of samples harvested in Cleron and Parcey? Between the three harvesting dates? Between each treatments? How could you test it?

Alpha-linolenic acid is similar to the omega-3 fatty acids that are in fish oil, called eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Your body can change alpha-linolenic acid into EPA and DHA. However, some researchers suggest that less than 1% of ALA is converted to physiologically effective levels of EPA and DHA.

There is good evidence that fish oil containing EPA and DHA may help treat heart disease, prevent heart attack and stroke, and slightly reduce high blood pressure. Some researchers think the same may be true for alpha-linolenic acid. There is evidence that this may be so, but the evidence is not as strong as it is for fish oil.

Note: Alpha-linolenic acid is not the same as alpha-lipoic acid, an antioxidant that helps the body turn glucose into energy. This can be confusing because both alpha-linolenic acid and alpha-lipoic acid are sometimes abbreviated as ALA.

One of the best ways to help prevent and treat heart disease is to eat a diet that is low in saturated and trans fats, and rich in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, particularly omega-3 fatty acids. The Mediterranean Diet -- which emphasizes whole grains, root and green vegetables, daily servings of fruit, fish and poultry, olive and canola oils, and alpha-linolenic acid (found in flaxseed oil) -- is an example.

There's some evidence that eating foods high in alpha-linolenic acid may help, too. One study suggests that people who eat a diet high in alpha-linolenic acid are less likely to have a fatal heart attack. Another study found that women who ate high levels of alpha-linolenic acid (1.5 g per day) had a 46% lower risk of sudden cardiac death than those who ate the lowest amount of alpha-linolenic acid (about half a gram per day). Other population studies show that as people eat more foods with alpha-linolenic acid, heart disease deaths go down.

People who follow a Mediterranean-style diet tend to have higher HDL ("good") cholesterol levels. In addition, walnuts -- which are rich in alpha-linolenic acid -- have been shown to lower cholesterol and triglycerides in people with high cholesterol. However, studies with flaxseed oil, which is high in alpha-linolenic acid, have been mixed. Some studies found that alpha-linolenic acid may help lower cholesterol, while others found it didn't. Researchers don't know whether alpha-linolenic acid supplements would have the same benefits as foods with alpha-linolenic acid.

Several studies suggest that diets or supplements rich in omega-3 fatty acids lower blood pressure slightly in people with hypertension. One population study found that eating a diet rich in alpha-linolenic acid reduced the risk of high blood pressure by about 30%.

Preliminary research suggests that omega-3 fatty acid supplements (particularly perilla seed oil, which is rich in alpha-linolenic acid) may decrease inflammation and improve lung function in some people with asthma.

Sometimes the active ingredients in products with alpha-linolenic acid can be destroyed by exposing them to air, heat, or light. Generally, look for oil bottled in light-resistant containers, refrigerated, and marked with an expiration date. These oils are not healthful when used for cooking. Instead, use them in salad dressings and dips.

People with diabetes or schizophrenia may not be able to convert alpha-linolenic acid to EPA and DHA, the forms the body uses more easily. They should get omega-3 fatty acids from foods rich in EPA and DHA.

Although studies have found that regularly eating fish -- which includes omega-3 fatty acids -- may reduce the risk of macular degeneration, one study of two large groups of men and women found that diets rich in alpha-linolenic acid may increase the risk of macular degeneration. Until researchers know more, people with macular degeneration may want to get omega-3 fatty acids from sources of EPA and DHA, rather than alpha-linolenic acid.

Similarly, studies have found that fish and fish oil may protect against prostate cancer. But a few studies suggest that alpha-linolenic acid is associated with an increased risk for prostate cancer. The evidence isn't clear, however. Other studies have found that flaxseed -- high in alpha-linolenic acid -- may benefit men at risk for prostate cancer. Until researchers know more, men with prostate cancer, or who have a father or brother diagnosed with prostate cancer, should ask their doctor before taking alpha-linolenic acid.

Brouwer IA, Katan MB, Zock PL. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid is associated with reduced risk of fatal coronary heart disease, but increased prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. J Nutr. 2004;134:919-922.

Egert S, Somoza V, Kannenberg F, et al. Influence of three rapeseed oil-rich diets, fortified with alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid on the composition and oxidizability of low-density lipoproteins: results of a controlled study in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007;61(3):314-325.

Marangoni F, Colombo C, Martiello A, Poli A, Paoletti R, Galli C. Levels of the n-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid in addition to those of alpha linolenic acid are significantly raised in blood lipids by the intake of four walnuts a day in humans. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2007;17(6):457-461.

Nelson TL, Stevens JR, Hickey MS. Adiponectin levels are reduced, independent of polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene, after supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid among healthy adults. Metabolism. 2007;56(9):1209-1215.

Zatonski W, Campos H, Willett W. Rapid declines in coronary heart disease mortality in Eastern Europe are associated with increased consumption of oils rich in alpha-linolenic acid. Eur J Epidemiol. 2008;23(1):3-10. 041b061a72


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