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300 Burpee Challenge

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Download 1979 Eyes The Universe (RM 2006) Rar

Starting from the results reported in this systematic review, the construction of a psychophysiological model of slow breathing techniques can be attempted. In general, slow breathing techniques enhance interactions between autonomic, cerebral and psychological flexibility, linking parasympathetic and CNS activities related to both emotional control and well-being. Slow breathing techniques seem to promote a predominance of the parasympathetic autonomic system with respect to the sympathetic one, mediated by the vagal activity (Streeter et al., 2012; Brown et al., 2013). The vagus nerve in turn, transmits interoceptive information from gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and pulmonary systems to the central nervous system through the Nucleus of the Tractus Solitarius. The enhancement of vagal tone within the cardiovascular system is reflected by the increase of both HRV power and RSA. It is worth underlining that HRV modulation is highly dependent on the respiration frequency, increasing along with the slowing of breath (Song and Lehrer, 2003). RSA on its side is consistently considered a robust index of parasympathetic activity (Reyes del Paso et al., 1993), and it has proven to be mainly driven by two mechanisms: (1) the decrease of intrathoracic pressure during inhalation that promotes an increase of venous return, which in turn is registered by stretch receptors causing increases in heart rate (Bainbridge Reflex, Bainbridge, 1915), and (2) the inhibition of vagal cardiac efferent activity due to the stimulation of pulmonary C-fiber afferents (Shykoff et al., 1991; Horner et al., 1995; De Burgh Daly, 2011). There is growing evidence suggesting an active role of RSA in regulating homeostasis and improving oxygen uptake (Hayano et al., 1996; Yasuma and Hayano, 2004) and pulmonary gas exchange during slow breathing techniques (Bernardi et al., 1998; Giardino et al., 2003). In this framework, we found consistent proofs linking the slowing of breath rhythm to increases in RSA (Van Diest et al., 2014). Jerath et al. (2006) hypothesized another slow breathing techniques-related mechanism, which would explain the parasympathetic nervous system activity predominance. He hypothesized an involvement of lungs stretch receptors (i.e., Herin Breuer's reflex) and of stretching pulmonary connective tissue (fibroblasts). The stretching of lung tissue in fact produces inhibitory signals, as the fibroblasts activity fosters a slow adaptation of stretch receptors and hyperpolarization currents (Matsumoto et al., 2000; Kamkin et al., 2005).

Download 1979 Eyes The Universe (RM 2006) rar



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